By late August 1864, the city of Atlanta was not yet subdued by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's armies. A few supply lines remained open to the city supporting the army of Lieut. Gen. John B. Hood encircled there. Union cavalry raids inflicted only superficial damage, quickly repaired by the Confederates. Sherman determined that if he could destroy the Macon & Western and Atlanta & West Point Railroads to the south the Rebel army would be forced to evacuate the city. On August 25, Union infantry began moving towards the railroad near Jonesborough. To counter Sherman, Hood sent Lieut. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt the Union movement. On August 31, Hardee attacked west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing a direct attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardee’s force that night. The next day, a Union attack broke through Hardee’ s troops which retreated south. That evening, Hood finally evacuated Atlanta, which surrendered to Federal troops on September 2. Sherman had finally won the strategically important Confederate city, but had not defeated the Army of Tennessee.