SHARE:

South Mountain

Crampton's, Turner's and Fox's Gaps

Frederick County and Washington County, MD  |  Sep 14, 1862

After his success at Second Manassas, Gen. Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia north across the Potomac River on an invasion of Maryland in early September, 1862. Lee divided his army, sending Lieut. Gen. James Longstreet into western Maryland while Lieut. Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson attempted to capture the Federal garrison at Harper's Ferry. The bold plan was jeopardized on September 13 when a mislaid copy of Lee's orders revealing the Confederates' plans was given to Union commander Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. The next day, emboldened by this intelligence, McClellan moved his army toward the three passes on South Mountain to destroy the Confederate defenders there and divide Lee's army. Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker at Turner's Gap, Maj. Gen. Jesse Reno at Fox's Gap, and Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin at Crampton's Gap all gained some success against Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill and his reinforcements. Finally defeated in battle by McClellan, Lee withdrew. Though the Federals ultimately gained control of all three passes, stubborn resistance on the part of the Southerners bought Lee precious time to begin the process of reuniting his army, and set the stage for the Battle of Antietam three days later.

All battles of the Maryland Campaign

Civil War  |  Battle
Harpers Ferry
Jefferson County, WV  |  Sep 12 - 15, 1862
Result: Confederate Victory
Est. Casualties: 12,922
Union: 12,636
Confederate: 286
Civil War  |  Battle
South Mountain
Frederick County and Washington County, MD  |  Sep 14, 1862
Result: Union Victory
Est. Casualties: 5,010
Union: 2,325
Confederate: 2,685
Civil War  |  Battle
Antietam
Washington County, MD  |  Sep 16 - 18, 1862
Result: Union Victory
Est. Casualties: 22,717
Union: 12,401
Confederate: 10,316
Civil War  |  Battle
Shepherdstown
Town of Shepherdstown, WV  |  Sep 19 - 20, 1862
Result: Confederate Victory
Est. Casualties: 622
Union: 361
Confederate: 261

Related Battles

Boonsboro, MD | September 14, 1862
Result: Union Victory
Commanders
Estimated Casualties
5,010
Union
2,325
Confed.
2,685

The Battlefields Today