Following the French and Indian War, General Thomas Gage was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all forces in North America in 1763. Gage was later appointed as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts in 1774, in an attempt by Parliament to quell rising unrest there. As Governor, Gage is credited for exacerbating tensions between the colonies and the mother country through the enforcement of gratuitous parliamentary policies and for encouraging Parliament to institute harsher punishments. Upon receiving orders to take decisive actions to quell the growing rebellion and unrest, Gage ordered the advance on Lexington and Concord, thus sparking the Revolutionary War in 1775. Gage was later recalled by Parliament in 1775 and replaced by General Howe, following the staggering losses incurred at the Battle of Bunker Hill.