American Battlefield Trust's map of the Battle of Harpers Ferry
After a day of Confederate bombardment from the surrounding high ground, Union infantry defending Harpers Ferry still held its ground on Bolivar Heights just west of the town. By the morning of September 15, Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson had positioned nearly 50 guns on Maryland Heights and Loudoun Heights, prepared to fire on the rear of the Federal infantry. During eleven hours of darkness, Jackson successfully deployed 5,000 infantrymen and 20 cannon in preparation for an attack. Shortly after dawn, Jackson began a fierce artillery barrage and ordered an infantry assault for 8:00 a.m. From Schoolhouse Ridge, Gen. A. P. Hill’s division was sent on a flanking move around the Federal left. Defending Federals under Col. Dixon S. Miles were shifted to meet the new threat, but Jackson’s guns had good effect. Miles ordered the surrender of the 12,000-man garrison shortly before being mortally wounded by a Confederate shell.