First Manassas - July 21, 1861
American Battlefield Trust's map of the Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run) on on July 21, 1861
Early on the morning of July 21st, 1861, the Union divisions of Col. David Hunter and Samuel Heintzelman crossed Bull Run creek at Sudley Ford behind Confederate Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard’s left flank. Three brigades under Gens. Nathan “Shanks” Evans, Bernard Bee, and Col. Francis Bartow were moved to Matthews Hill to meet the advancing Yankees. An additional brigade under Col. William T. Sherman crossed the creek and pressed the Confederate right while Col. Oliver O. Howard’s brigade attacked the Rebel left. Fighting raged throughout the morning as the Confederates were driven back to Henry Hill. Bee and Bartow were killed. In the afternoon, the brigade of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson occupied Henry Hill, supporting the infantry and artillery there. A Confederate brigade under Col. Jubal Early beat back Howard’s advance. Jackson’s brigade attacked the Union infantry and artillery gathered on the west edge of the hill, precipitating a general collapse of the Federal line. The retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.”
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